Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Statistics

Graphic chart showing Atopic Dermatitis

Eczema Prevalence

  • Approximately 31.6 million people in the United States have some form of eczema 19

Atopic Dermatitis Prevalence

  • 15-20% of children globally have AD 5
  • 15% of children in the United States have AD 15
  • 1-3% of adults globally have AD 5
  • 7.3% of adults in the United States have AD 16

 

Definition of Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis (AD), a form of eczema, is a chronic, non-contagious, inflammatory skin condition that causes dry and itchy skin which sometimes weeps clear fluid 1

Causes of Atopic Dermatitis

The exact cause of AD is unknown, but most cases are a combination of genetics and triggers 2

  • There are several genetic factors which may lead to AD:
    • Individuals who have a parent with a history of AD, asthma, or hay fever are more likely to develop AD 3
    • Some people have a mutation in the CARD11 gene, which affects immune system cells 3
    • Some people with AD have a mutation in the gene responsible for creating filaggrin, which is a protein that helps create a healthy outer layer of skin 3
  • There are multiple things that may trigger AD symptoms including:
    • Cosmetic Products 4,5
    • Clothing 4,5
    • Dust Mites 4
    • Detergents or Soap 4
    • Weather 4,5
    • Viral Infections 4,5
    • Food allergens 5
    • Fragrances 5

Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis

  • AD affects the skin and common symptoms include:
    • Skin itching 6
    • Dry skin 6
    • Redness 6
    • Puffy or swollen skin 6
    • Oozing or crusting from skin 6
    • Raw Skin 6
    • Thick, leathery patches of skin 6

Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis

Treatment of AD may involve a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions 7

  • Non-pharmacologic
    • Skin moisturizers – should be applied after bathing 7
    • Bathing 7
    • Limit use of non-soap cleansers (should be low-pH, hypoallergenic, fragrance free) 7
    • Wet-wrap therapy 7
  • Pharmacologic (under direction of a medical provider)
    • Topical corticosteroids (if failure to respond to non-pharmacologic management) 7
    • Topical calcineurin inhibitors 7
    • Not routinely recommended for management – topical antimicrobial agents or antihistamines 7
    • Systemic immunomodulating medications 8
    • Providers may also prescribe phototherapy 8

Atopic Dermatitis Disparities

  • AD is more common in black children than other racial or ethnic groups 17
  • AD is  more common in children from families with higher incomes and education 17
  • Blacks and Asians/Pacific Islanders are more likely to seek medical care for AD 18

Atopic Dermatitis Burden

  • 91% of patients experience itching on a daily basis 12
  • 15.5% of adolescents with AD report suicidal ideation compared to 9.1% of adolescence without 13
    • This increases to 23.8% in adolescence with AD and itching 13
  • 47-60% of children with AD experience sleep disturbances 14

Economic Burden of Atopic Dermatitis

  • The total annual cost of AD increased to estimated $5.3 billion in 2015 10
    • The direct costs associated with AD were over $1 billion annually in 2004 9
      • $636 million for office visits 9
      • $154 million for prescription medications 9
      • $108 million for outpatient hospital visits 9
      • $105 million for emergency department visits 9
      • $6 million for inpatient hospital stays 9
    • The indirect costs associated with AD were $619 million in 2004 9
      • $248.5 million for caregiver lost workdays 9
      • $188.1 million for restricted activity days 9
      • $182.6 million for lost workdays 9

Per person, the average cost of treating AD is $3,302 more than for a person without the disease 11