Note: we will continue to update this post as news comes out. This post was last updated on Aug. 4, 2022.
Adults and children 6 months of age and older are now eligible to get the COVID-19 vaccination, says the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All people including those with asthma are urged to get their COVID-19 vaccine. Widespread vaccination is a critical tool to help stop the pandemic.
Check the websites of your state and local departments of health for information about vaccine availability in your area, or visit Vaccines.gov.
Four COVID-19 vaccines are available in the United States: the Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson and Novavax vaccines.
- The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine is available for adults and children ages 6 months and older. It is a two-dose series for adults and children ages 5-18. It is a three-dose series for children ages 6 months to 4 years old.
- The Moderna vaccine is also available for adults and children ages 6 months and older. It is a two-dose series.
- The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is for adults only. It is a single dose. The vaccine is currently limited to those unable to get either the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccines.
- The Novavax vaccine is for adults only. It is a two-dose series.
COVID-19 booster doses are available from Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson. Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson have booster doses available for adults. Pfizer/BioNTech is the only booster available for children ages 5-17.
What should people with asthma and other respiratory diseases know about the COVID-19 vaccine?
Should people with asthma get the COVID-19 vaccine?
Yes, says board-certified allergist Purvi Parikh, MD, national spokesperson for Allergy & Asthma Network. People with underlying medical conditions such as asthma can receive the COVID-19 vaccine as long as they have not had an immediate or severe allergic reaction to the vaccine or any of its ingredients.
“I encourage everyone who is offered or has access to the vaccine to get it as soon as possible,” Dr. Parikh says.
When you get the Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna or Novavax vaccines, remember to schedule a time for the second or third dose. The second doses of the Pfizer and Novavax vaccines are given 21 days after the first dose. The second dose of the Moderna vaccine is given 28 after the first dose. The third dose of the Pfizer vaccine, which is only for children ages 6 months to 5 years old, is administered at least 2 months after the second dose.
Should people with asthma get the COVID-19 vaccine booster shot?
The CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccine booster shots for everyone ages 5 and older. The booster shot is intended to bolster protection, especially against more transmissible variants. It may be particularly beneficial for people with weak immune systems, including those with asthma and COPD.
Booster shots are available for Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines. It is recommended people receive the same vaccine dose as their initial series. According to the FDA, people may receive as their booster shot a different vaccine than the one they received for their original two doses. Some research suggests a mixing and matching approach may make the vaccine more effective, according to the National Institutes of Health.
The booster dose for Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna is administered six months after a person receives the second dose of the vaccine. The booster dose for Johnson & Johnson is given two months after a person receives the original dose.
Side effects to the vaccine booster shot are considered similar to side effects of the initial vaccine dose. The booster dose, just like the initial dose, is safe for pregnant women and has not been linked to any fertility concerns.
Should people with asthma who use inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids or biologics get the COVID-19 vaccine?
People with asthma who use inhaled corticosteroids can get the COVID-19 vaccine, according to the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI). There is no evidence to indicate that taking low or moderate doses of inhaled corticosteroids for asthma weaken the immune system and impact the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine.
People with asthma who take oral corticosteroids can get the COVID-19 vaccine, ACAAI says. However, more research is needed to understand the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine as there is a potential for a reduced immune response. It may depend on the patient’s daily dose and how long the patient has been on oral corticosteroids.
People who are on biologics for asthma can get the vaccine, but it’s recommended there be a 1-7 day waiting period between injections, according to ACAAI. Contact your doctor before getting the vaccine.
Can the COVID-19 vaccine make you sick with COVID-19?
No. You cannot become sick with the COVID-19 virus from any of the vaccines. The Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines do not contain the “live” virus, according to CDC.
The Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are Messenger RNA vaccines that contain a synthetic material that mimics the COVID-19 virus. It sends your body a message to produce antibodies and t-cells that build up an immune system defense against COVID-19.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a viral vector vaccine that uses a common cold virus with genetic code from COVID-19 introduced into it. The vaccine delivers the genetic code to our cells to train our immune system to defend itself against COVID-19.
When the vaccines start to teach our bodies how to recognize and fight the COVID-19 virus, this can cause you to experience symptoms:
- muscular or joint pain
These symptoms are normal as the body builds protection against the virus. They usually go away within a day.
It can take a couple weeks for the body to build immunity. It is possible you could become infected with COVID-19 either just before you’re vaccinated or shortly after, before your body builds protection.
Learn about COVID-19 vaccine side effects here.
Can you get sick with COVID-19 even after you have been vaccinated?
Yes, people can still catch the virus after vaccination. CDC calls these “vaccine breakthrough cases.” However, most people who do get COVID-19 post-vaccination develop mild symptoms and are less likely to get hospitalized or die from the virus.
Remember, no vaccine is 100% effective. In clinical trials, the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was shown to be 95% effective in preventing symptomatic illness. The Moderna vaccine was shown to be 94.5% effective in preventing symptomatic illness. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine was 85% effective in preventing severe or critical COVID-19 and 66% effective in preventing moderate illness. And the Novavax was 90.4% effective in preventing mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms.
What should I do until I get the vaccine?
While you wait to schedule your vaccine appointment, follow all guidance to protect yourself against COVID-19. This includes:
- Wear a mask in indoor public spaces if you live in an area with high cases of COVID-19
- Keep at least 6 feet away from others and avoid crowds
- Wash hands often with soap and water or use hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol
If you have asthma, keep it under control by following your Asthma Action Plan and taking your medications as prescribed.